The Social Person Era

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Introduction

Today’s human resource management practice and theory has gradually evolved over several years. The change and evolution of management field has played a great role in the development of knowledge regarding management practice.

In discussing the history of Human Resources Management it is  important to offer a definition of the subject. Human Resource Management can be described as “The comprehensive set of managerial  activities and tasks concerned with developing and maintaining a  qualified workforce – human resources – in ways that contribute to organisational effectiveness.” (DeNisi and Griffin, 2004)

The Hawthorne Studies were a groundbreaking set of experiments  conducted at the Western Electric plant in Hawthorne, Chicago by Elton  Mayo. The studies were conducted from 1927 to 1932 and measured the relationship between productivity and working environment. The studies  were based on preliminary experiments conducted in 1924 that measured the effect of lighting on productivity. (Bloomsbury, 2002).

The results of the experiments showed that changes in the environment  did affect productivity, but this was not the sole factor. The workers  considered management to be showing an interest in them and this improved motivation.

Chester Barnard, who was president of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, introduced the idea of the informal organization — cliques (exclusive groups of people) that naturally form within a company. He felt that these informal organizations provided necessary and vital communication functions for the overall organization and that they could help the organization accomplish its goals. The studies were conducted in 1938.

Barnard felt that it was particularly important for managers to develop a sense of common purpose where a willingness to cooperate is strongly encouraged. He is credited with developing the acceptance theory of management, which emphasizes the willingness of employees to accept that managers have legitimate authority to act.

Mayo’s studies and the subsequent results were a significant break  from the theories of F.W. Taylor in that the workers were not solely motivated by self interest. Mayo’s research has led to the  understanding that workplaces are more than machine like environments  in that there are social environments and human emotions that require consideration. Mayo’s studies led to the rise of the Human Relations Movement. The Human Relations movement ” argues that people are not just logical  decision makers but have needs for creativity support, recognition and self-affirmation.” (Theworkingmanager.com, 2004). The movement presents an alternative and opposite approach to  scientific management as it focuses on the individual and not the task.

In modern business the Human Resources Management function is complex and as such has resulted in the formation of Human resource  departments/divisions in companies to handle this function. The Human resource function has become a wholly integrated part of the total corporate strategy.

When we discuss about the human, then it will not far away from their thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and sensations. And all these factors play an important role as a main variables for understanding human as a resources and as a capital. at least that should be done to remain able to successfully communicate and convey information, to be able interpret others ‘emotions, to be open to others’ feelings, and able to solve conflicts and arrive at resolutions. and the eventual goal is the common goal of company.

As far as i know……..

Conflict often occurs in a multicultural working condition due to lack of distinction and communication problems among employees both horizontally and vertically. Conflict increases when the difference in values ​​and beliefs, and personal variables that quick respond with a trigger of conflict. Transform and conflict management is needed to minimize the consequences of dysfunctional conflict. In this case, the interests of various parties should be considered so as to create a functional condition. To achieve a functional state, it is necessary for a conflict resolution that can help restore the function of organizations is by reducing the differences, improve communication and understanding and clarify roles and procedures.

The organization is a place where there are common goals to achieve them together through the ranks and division of duties where management coordinate source material and human resources through a formal structure of tasks and authority. Berelson & Steiner argues that communication is a process of delivering information, ideas, emotions, skills, etc. through the use of symbols such as words, pictures, numbers, and so on. Correlation between communications with the organization is located in its review that focuses on the human beings involved in achieving the organization’s goals.

The history of Human Resource Management has progressed through the  ages from times when people were abused in slave like working conditions to the modern environment where people are viewed as assets to business and are treated accordingly. The Human Resource function will have to adapt with the times as staff  become more dynamic and less limited in their roles and bound by a job  description. In future we may see employees being measured on the value they contribute to a business and not their cost to the business.

Mencerdaskan bangsa lewat MUSIK

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Kali ini pakai Bahasa Indonesia aja, capek otaknya lagian saya Orang Indonesia tulen kok tidak bangga dengan bahasanya sendiri..

Berhubung sebentar lagi kita juga akan memeperingati Sumpah Pemuda, saya ingin berbagi unek-unek (ini klo di Inggris kan susah) saya tentang musik, satu “bahasa” yang bisa menyatukan seluruh perbedaan di seluruh dunia.

on ur mark…….

get set…….

Monggo..!

Jika kita mendengar kata musik, banyak hal yang akan terlintas di pikiran kita. Menurut KBBI musik adalah ilmu atau seni menyusun nada untuk menghasilkan suara yang mempunyai kesinambungan atau suatu bunyi terhadap sesuatu yang ditangkap oleh indera pendengar. Namun arti musik sebenarnya bukan hanya sebuah susunan nada ataupun bunyi yang kita tangkap lewat telinga kita, lebih dari itu, musik adalah ‘sahabat’ yang selalu menemani kita sepanjang hari, musik juga bisa berarti media untuk berkreasi, cara lain untuk menyampaikan pesan hingga sebuah mata pencaharian.

Apapun arti kata musik, kita tidak akan bisa mengelak bahwa musik ada dalam keseharian kita. Dan jika melihat perkembangan musik di Indonesia sekarang ini, telah menjadi sebuah industri kreatif yang semakin berkembang dan menjadi salah satu identitas bangsa kita [musik indonesia]. Jika musik memang identitas bangsa dan berada dalam keseharian kita kenapa kita tidak memakai musik sebagai alat/media untuk mencerdaskan bangsa kita?.

Saya akan mengajak untuk sedikit melihat kebelakang perkembangan musik kita di tanah air. Pada abad ke-15 penggunaan musik sudah menjadi cara tersendiri untuk menyampaikan pesan, Sunan Bonang seorang sunan yang melakukan penyebaran agama Islam di pulau jawa menciptakan tembang-tembang yang syarat dengan pesan dan ajaran agama Islam, karena lewat musik, ajaran yang disampaikan akan lebih mudah diterima oleh rakyat dan diresapi dengan baik. Hingga saat ini tembang ‘Tombo ati’ yang diciptakan oleh sunan Bonang masih dilantunkan oleh Opick. Dan jika kita melongok pada tahun 90-an kita akan menemukan beberapa musik yang masih membekas pada ingatan kita seperti duet Saskia dan Geofanny dengan Titiek Puspa yang mengajarkan kita betapa pentingnya menabung, Oppie Andaresta dan Trio Kwek-kwek yang mengajarkan kita untuk selalu ingat dengan pesan orang tua, Joshua Suherman yang memberikan manfaat dari penggunaan air hingga mengajak kita untuk tidak menebang hutan dan melindungi hewan-hewan yang di hutan kita.

Berbicara tentang musik dan lagu anak-anak Indonesia juga tidak akan lepas dari sosok Pak A.T. Mahmud. Pencipta lagu anak-anak dan juga mantan Tentara Pelajar ini menciptakan lebih dari 40 lagu anak-anak, seperti Lagu Pelangi, Anak Gembala, Amelia dan Ambilkan bulan bu yang masih melegenda di telinga kita. Kita juga memiliki sosok Sandiah dan Soerjono atau yang lebih kita kenal dengan Bu Kasur dan Pak Kasur, tokoh pendidikan Indonesia dan pendiri Taman Kanak-kanak (TK) Mini. Lagu balonku, Dua mata saya, Selamat pagi bu guru dan Topi saya bundar adalah beberapa lagu yang diciptakan Pak Kasur. Semua lagi itu penuh dengan pesan pendidikan, pesan moral dan pembentukan karakter yang sangat dibutuhkan calon generasi penerus bangsa.

Tetapi sungguh sangat disayangkan, dibalik berkembangnya industri musik Indonesia terjadi sebuah kemerosotan moral, pendidikan dan budaya. Mengapa saya beranggapan seperti itu, kita  bisa melihat sendiri lewat layar televisi dimana setiap pagi hingga malam kita dihibur oleh acara musik yang sebenarnya sama sekali tidak memberikan pesan positif didalamnya hanya sekedar memanjakan telinga, tidak lebih dari itu. Contoh paling gampang, jika kita berada di persimpangan jalan dan mendengarkan seorang anak pengamen mendendangkan sebuah lagu, yang akan kita dengar adalah lagu-lagu yang bertemakan cinta, pengkhianatan, perselingkuhan, perpisahan bahkan hingga kekerasan dan pelecehan. Semua lagu itu diramu dan dikemas apik oleh nada-nada yang menarik dan mudah dihafalkan oleh seorang anak kecil. Lagu-lagu bertema itu semua dirasa terlalu ‘berat’ untuk dikonsumsi anak-anak Indonesia dan tidak mendidik bangsa kita. Dengan kondisi seperti ini, anak-anak Indonesia cenderung lebih ‘dewasa’ sebelum waktunya dikarenakan hebatnya pesan yang disampaikan lewat musik yang masuk ke otak mereka. Sudah tidak adanya penggolongan genre lagu berdasarkan usia dan dengan banyaknya lagu bertemakan cinta, apakah membuat bangsa kita jadi lebih cinta damai atau malah membuat bangsa kita menjadi ‘lebay’. Apa ini pantas untuk anak-anak kita?, Apa ini kondisi yang diinginkan bangsa kita?.

Sebenarnya masih banyak musisi yang masih berpegang teguh dengan prinsip-prinsip lama, yang selalu berusaha untuk mendidik bangsa, menyampaikan pesan positif, mengajak untuk berbuat baik dan mengkritisi isu-isu moral yang terjadi. Saya akan melihat seorang Bondan Prakoso, mantan penyanyi cilik di era 80-an yang telah merilis 8 album anak –anak dengan single hits-nya ‘Si Lumba-Lumba’ yang hingga hari ini masih bisa kita dengar di Gelanggang Samudra Ancol atau menjadi lagu pengiring seorang ibu ketika menyuapi anaknya makan. Tidak berhenti sampai disitu, dedikasinya terhadap musik merubah dia menjadi seorang bassist dari group alternative yang menyabet 2 penghargaan AMI Award pada awal tahun 2000 dan beberapa tahun terakhir dia berhasil meraih penghargaan musik tertinggi Indonesia ketiga kalinya bersama group rap yang dipimpinnya. 

Dedikasi tinggi terhadap musik Indonesia dan karya yang berkualitas yang memberikan pesan positif dan mendidik untuk jadi lebih baik adalah salah satu cara untuk mencerdaskan bangsa kita lewat musik. Musik yang bisa membekas di ingatan kita, bukan musik yang datang dan pergi di ingatan kita. Musik yang bisa mempengaruhi kita untuk membuat hidup kita jadi lebih baik, bukan musik yang menyesatkan kita sehingga semakin terpuruk. Bukan hal yang tidak mungkin karena lewat musik kita bisa mempersatukan dan mencerdaskan suatu bangsa.

 Selamat memperingati Hari Sumpah Pemuda, bukan hanya di ucapan dan tulisan tapi esensi yang terkandung dari sumpah pemuda ini lah yang harus kita pertahankan..

 

Sedikit saran untuk pendaki gunung :)

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Ada pepatah mengatakan jika mendaki gunung, jangan berangkat dengan jumlah orang yang ganjil karena akan pulang dengan jumlah orang genap, salah satu cara agar satu orang yang tertinggal digunung ini bisa kembali adalah berangkatkan satu rombongan yang berjumlah ganjil, ketika rombongan kedua ini kembali dan telah berjumlah genap maka akan tertinggal dua orang yang berjumlah genap dan pulanglah semua pendaki

 

Just kidding, mengingat kembali bercandaan jaman suka mendaki gunung.

Reciprocity in traditional Java and Modern Java: Part II

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Through a ritual to give something to others, giving implies a desire to recognize / recognition and for the recipient, as the door to enter into a social relationship. In accepting the gift, the recipient acknowledges and is willing to enter into a social relationship with the giver, but the willingness is not only just that. In the words of Mauss: “A gift is received with a burden attached.” To receive a gift is to reflect one’s acceptance to undertake a challenge: to prove that one can reciprocate, implying that one accepts the challenge or obligation to render the ‘honor’ one day in the future.

In contrast to gifts, a bribe is a payment or promise of payment for a service. Typically, this payment is made to somebody in power (often an official) in exchange for violating some official duties or responsibilities. “Bribes are payments made to agents by people who are not their principals, in return for a well-understood quid pro quo. In a bribery exchange, the individual sees the immediate return of the investment (i.e.the money given by the briber) as a final achievement. The immediate reciprocal nature of the transaction has paid off the debt. The briber and the bribee have “exited” the relationship, even though they might be bound by mutual silence following the transaction.

Many, including the man on the street, will say that bribery is a purely cultural phenomenon, and that it is one form of gift-giving to express an appreciation of a relationship in Java. Moreover, business people are using gifts to enhance their relationship with suppliers and clients, and where grease money is necessary to obtain something and to keep the gears of business moving, most will not hesitate since “that is how business is done here”. It is also very interesting to note that the Javanese and Indonesian languages do not have precise translations for the English words ‘bribery’ in terms we used ‘suap’ word.

The fact that those gifts are hidden, and that those “under the table payments” are not legally allowed, nor morally accepted by a majority of the citizens. If these ‘gifts’ were really proper, they would be above the table instead of below it. The transgression from gift to a ‘disguised gift’ – or bribery – is possible because of their similarities. Due to both a gift and a bribe is based on reciprocal relationships where trust and reputation play an important  roles.

With a growing urbanization, weak functioning institutions and the birth of the ‘individual’, traditional ‘gift’ products have been transformed into ‘marketable objects’. Currently, there seems to be a tendency in almost all cultures nowadays to condemn bribery as harmful to society. Likewise, the majority of Indonesians wants high profiled corruptors to be sentenced and put in prison. However, empirical data indicate a ambiguity about payments made to local officials for services rendered. Many Indonesians in this case feel that such payments should not necessarily be perceived as corrupt or a ‘bribe’, but rather as ‘normal’.

Traditional social relationships gradually shifted to a form of ‘exchange’ in modern Java and thus became more economic than social in nature. Alliances in this economic or commercial framework assume an immediate reciprocity where the rights and duties of each party are equal, whereas social alliances or gift relationships are “not strict, not immediate and unintentional”.

Reciprocity in traditional Java and Modern Java: Part I

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The social theme, the issue for may article today.

One of the themes that everyone can surely write, yeah.. a common theme for humanenees.

Thanks to Mauss that inspired me..

Gift, we all do the giving things.
Received, and we all receive the gift.
Reciprocity?tit for tat?
A hidden massage carried on  a gift?
Are there any differences between the term of giving in traditional era with today’s era?different or same?

 

Cultural diversity, is one of the most well known identity for our country, Indonesia. From the era of the kingdom until now, the diversity was still “strong” until the present. Indonesia is one of the tangent to a wide range of cultures and religions. The process of acculturation is often seen in the practices of life in Indonesia, especially in Java.

This is the condition of Java in 18th century, based on few reference. In Kingdom era a village chief, regional governor or king in traditional Java is required to provide for the community. The Javanese ‘king’ preserves his authority over his members and other potential contenders if he could  prove his good fortune by spending it and sharing it. Pakubuwana (1893-1938) was renowned for his regular jaunts through his kingdom where, from the centre of his entourage, he would literately throw gifts of money to his people, with that way the  the Javanese ‘king’ preserves his authority over his members and other potential contenders by proving that he is favoured both by the gods (the spirits) and by good fortune. The Javanese king shares his wealth with his subjects as a form of security for which in return he receives unconditional loyalty.

In Java it is the rukun principle — or the principle of conflict avoidance — particularly that reflects the ‘sharing’ of the gift function. This term of rukun is an act as a counterweight of harmony between humans. Co-operation, mutual acceptance, calm, patience and unity characterize the state of rukun. Another important social regulatory principle in Java is the concept of respect (hormat) which is based on the belief that all social relationships are ordered in a hierarchical structure that constitutes a good in itself. The respect principle is a social reality that maintains the feudalistic social order of Java.

The Javanese social order is represented clearly in the way the Javanese communicate, interact and exchange goods and services. The choice of gift objects, words, and the subtlety of language and body gestures are all expressions of this social status and order. These social strata refer to specific social behaviour: the ‘superior’ can demand loyalty, including the so-called ‘tax’ payments (upeti), and service from subordinates. In return, the subordinates could expect protection and moral guidance.

The traditional patrimonial and solidarity relationships started to decline by the end of the 19th century. After the collapse of the Dutch colonial cultuurstelselin the 1860s the government liberalized its economic policies and allowed European entrepreneurs to enter Java. [UU Agraria 1870 dan UU Gula 1870]. The traditional mechanisms of rukun and hormat have been replaced by economic values encouraging individualistic materialism, status craving, greed for money and power. The concept of harmony itself might have been nothing more than a name for.

Java has been going through a transition and shift from a culture of gift (exchange) to a culture of exchanging (disguised) gifts. The individuation of the social mores in Java and lack of efficient institutionshave allowed a gift to shift to an exchange. Mauss said : The gift is conceptually characterized by a three-fold structure of reciprocity. This structure acknowledges a triple social obligation: somebody has to give a gift, a recipient receives the gift, and eventually the recipient will reciprocate the gift in the future.

 

to be continued…..

Oscar Lewis and The Rashomon

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RASHOMON-

Ahhh….Rashomon,( thanks to my Professor, Mr. Bill Watson..)

This one is my favorite “jadul” movie, it has a lot of new age in the film technique and one of the most “plot-est” movie i ever watched..

I’m trying to get a red line from the work of Akira Kurosawa (Rashomon) and Oscar Lewis (anthropologist and a film maker).

Rashomon is a 1950 Japanese crime drama film directed by Akira Kurosawa, working in close collaboration with cinematographer Kazuo Miyagawa. It stars Toshiro Mifune, Masayuki Mori, Machiko Kyō and Takashi Shimura. The film is based on two stories by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa — (“Rashomon” provides the setting, while “In a Grove” provides the characters and plot).

Rashomon introduced Kurosawa and the cinema of Japan to Western audiences, albeit to a small number of theatres, and is considered one of his masterpieces. The film won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival and also received an Academy Honorary Award at the 24th Academy Awards.

Oscar Lewis, born Lefkowitz, (December 25, 1914, New York City – December 16, 1970) was an American anthropologist. He is best known for his vivid depictions of the lives of slum dwellers and his argument a cross-generational culture of poverty among poor people transcends national boundaries. Lewis contended that the cultural similarities occurred because they were “common adaptations to common problems” and that “the culture of poverty is both an adaptation and a reaction of the poor to their marginal position in a class-stratified, highly individualistic, capitalistic society.” He won the 1967 U.S. National Book Award in Science, Philosophy and Religion for La Vida; A Puerto Rican Family in the Culture of Poverty.

In this Rashomon movie we play an important role, we are positioned as a judge in which we hear all the testimony with their own version (Multiple Realities). And the works of Oscar lewis, the autobiography of mexican family (The chidren of Sanchez,1961) are using a ‘Rashomon-like’ techniques too, that is multiple versions of a single event by different informants.

To increase the credibility and validity of the real event, the readers and the audiences can triangulate of each version to know what is going on/real event. By combining multiple realities, the readers or the audiences can hope to overcome the weakness of intrinsic biases and the problems that come from single version.

In this movie we play an important role, we are positioned as a judge in which we hear all the testimony with their own version (Multiple Realities)and determine which one is correct.

We made to see the woodcutter’s point of view and justify the story. As a judge/researcher, we are forbidden to subjectively on a single proof. In the presence of multiple Realities we should be able to know the truth, because humans have a self interest (shame, honor, masculine bravado, feminine virtue) that could change the real truth and a different conclusion.

Ethnography are made, not found.

references:

Biella, Peter, “The idea of a field school in applied visual anthropology, presented at the meetings of the American Anthropological Association, Philadelphia, PA. Dec. 3.

ERIC R. WOLF, Book Reviews: The Children of Sancheez: Autobiography of a Mexican Family, The University of Michigan

Heider, Karl G.  1988. The Rashomon Effect: When Ethnographers Disagree .American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 90, No. 1 (Mar.,), pp. 73-81. Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the American Anthropological Association

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oscar_Lewis

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangulation_%28social_science%29

Lois GROSSMAN, The Children of Sánchez on Stage,University of New Hampshire,1978

Oscar Lewis, The Children of Sánchez(New York: Vintage Books, 1961), p. xxiii.

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